Solutions of Linear and Nonlinear Fractional Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

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Abdelhalim Ebaid
Hind K. Al-Jeaid


The present paper analyzes a class of first-order fractional Fredholm integro differential equations in terms of Caputo fractional derivative. In the literature, such kind of fractional integro-differential equations have been solved using several numerical methods, while the exact solutions were not obtained. However, the exact solutions are obtained in this paper for various linear and nonlinear examples. It is shown that the exact solution of the linear problems is unique, while multiple exact solutions exist for the nonlinear ones. Moreover, the obtained results reduce to the classical ones in the relevant literature as the fractional order becomes unity. The obtained exact solutions can be further invested by other researchers to validate their numerical/approximation methods.

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